A CHRONOLOGY OF THE FIRST CENTURY OF CHRISTIANITY INCLUDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT
September 7 B.C.E. First Registration in Syria, Judea and Galilee but not followed by taxation
Jesus birth, October 3, 7 B.C.E.
Herod the Great dies, March, 4BCE. His will bequeaths Judea, Idumea and Samaria to Archelaus; Galilee and Peraea to Herod Antipas, Iturea, Gaulanitis and Trachonitis to Philip
6 CE Herod Archelaus deposed and banished to Gaul. Augustus institutes prefecture with Quirinius as Legatus Syria and Coponius as Praefectus Iudeae.
September, 6 C.E. Second Registration followed by first direct Roman taxation
6 Uprising of Judas of Gamala and Zadok, the Pharisee.
6 Archelaus banished to Gaul
6-15 Ananus I (Annas) ben Seth appointed High Priest.
9-12 Ambivius appointed Prefect
12-15 Rufus, Prefect
14 Emperor Augustus dies, Tiberius becomes Emperor
15-26 Gratus, Prefect
15-17 Gratus appoints Eleazar, son of Annas, High Priest.
18-36 Yosef bar Qof (Joseph Caiaphas) appointed High Priest by Gratus.
19 Herod Antipas moves capital of Galilee from Sepphoris to Tiberias.
26-36 Pontius Pilatus, Prefect
27 John the Baptist (Essene)
26/27 Jesus begins his ministry 26/27 CE
Oracles of the Lord 27-29 by Levi Mattai ben Alfai** (later to be incorporated in Greek translation in Q along with oral material)
28 The Galilean sacrifices by Pilate
April 7, 30 CE Jesus crucified Pesach -
June 6, 30 CE Shavuot/Pentacost
31 Sejanus made Consul
33 Stoning of Stephen
late 33 Pauls conversion
34 Tetrarch Philip dies
34-42 Pauls silent years
36 The Samaritan prophet incident and Vitellius Recall of Pilate, Caiaphas deposed
36-37 Marcellus, Prefect
36-37 Vitellius appoints Yehonathan (Jonathan) High Priest.
Tiberius dies, March 16, 37 CE, age 79, at Misenum by the bay of Naples. Caligula becomes emperor, Sejanus Trial.
37 Caligula gives brother of Herodias, Herod Agrippa I, title of King and Philips Tetrarchy
37-41 Marullus, Prefect
39 Herod Agrippa I acquires Tetrarchy of Antipas
41 Caligula assassinated, Claudius becomes Emperor
41 Claudius gives Herod Agrippa Ethnarchy of Archelaus
40-42 Sayings Gospel compiled by Jerusalem Assembly under James
42 Yaqub bar Zebediya (James the Great) killed by Agrippa
42 Paul in Antioch
43 Thaddeus (Yehudah Taddei) son of James the great. to Armenia
43 Thomas to India
43-48 Andrew in Scythia
43 Philip to Scythia
44 Yaqub bar Alfai (James the Less) killed by Agrippa
44 Herod Agrippa I dies
44-46 Cuspus Fadus, procurator.
44 Uprising of Theudas . Theudas beheaded by Fadus.
44 The first "burst" of Gospel writing begins just prior to the second half of the first century. I believe this Gospel Writing period was stimulated by an initial animosity and rivalry between the disciples and followers of Jesus. First, an animosity to Peter by John, who believed Peter a traitor, and perhaps some hard feelings by Peter to James, Jesus brother. The assumption of authority over the Kingdom Movement by James could have been a blow to Peter. James absence from the movement prior to the crucifixion and his position of authority immediately afterwards has been an enigma to New Testament scholars. James sudden rise to leadership can only be explained by it having been ordered by Jesus himself. Evidence of this may be preserved in Logion 12 of the Gospel of Thomas:
The disciples said to Jesus, "We know that you will depart from us. Who is to be our leader?"
Jesus said to them, "Wherever you are, you are to go to James the Righteous, for whose sake Heaven and Earth came into being."
Some contend that a brother who rises from the dead would make a believer out of anyone. This author is inclined to believe that James may have been an integral part of the Jesus Movement during the ministry of Jesus. The development of the "perpetual virgin" teaching by 2nd century Apostolic "fathers" necessitated a form of historical and canonical "assassination" of Jesus blood siblings. Whatever the reason, this lack of harmony created an atmosphere for the writing of each contenders "side of the story."
John I "Proto-John/Signs" 44-45 Hostile to Peter. Shaken by Jesus crucifixion, his cousin Yohanon bears animosity to Peter whom he believed a traitor. Yohanon was Jesus closest relative who was a follower from the very beginning. He may have felt that he, as the surviving cousin (James the Greater now dead) should have assumed leadership of the movement. That Ya'akov (James) and Yohanon (John) felt some "special position" in the coming "Kingdom of God," and was chastised by Jesus for it, may be reflected in Mark 10:35-45. The polemic against Peter in the first edition of John would later be softened and edited by redactors. I think that this Proto-John may have been the Signs Gospel. Earliest and most rudimentary gospel. An Aramaic, continuous and connected account of the deeds of Jesus beginning with John the Baptist. Composed by the Jerusalem Assembly to demonstrate that Jesus was the Messiah. This may very well have been "proto-John."
Letter from James 45 The Epistle of James is written in good literary Greek but contains Aramaisms that suggest the letter was dictated by James to a secretary writing in Greek. Whether or not there was an Aramaic original of the Letter is not known. Some scholars place James at a later date and dependent on Q source material or the Synoptics for Jesus sayings. More likely is James himself as a source of some of the later Q material. It is very likely that the Epistle was indeed composed by Jesus' brother. Jesus' sayings are plays on words, alliterations and rhymes reminiscent of typical Yeshuine style.
Letter from Jude 45
The Cross Gospel, an account of the passion and resurrection by Jerusalem Assemby. 45
May have been composed by James and Peter and would be preserved in the "Gospel of Peter."
I believe it reflects the "suffering Righteous One" link to the Essenes and may also have been written to alleviate the John-Peter controversy.
45 Pauls first missionary journey (Acts 13-14)
Paul Barnabas, Mark sail from Seleucia to Cyprus then to Perga in Pamphylia
Mark returns to Jerusalem
45 Philo of Alexandria tries to unify Greek and Hebrew philosophy.
46-48 Tiberius Julis Alexander, an apostate Jew, procurator of Judea
47-59 Ananius ben Nedebaeus appointed High Priest by Herod of Chalcis.
48-52 Ventidius Cumanus becomes procurator of Judea
48-93 Agrippa II, King of Judea. Rules from Chalcis 48-52 and from Iturea 52-93.
I Thessalonians 48
Peter at Antioch (Gal 2:11-16) late 48
Mark I 43-49 counters "proto-Johns" hostility to Peter.
49 Expulsion of Jews from Rome by Claudius
"Apostolic" Council 49 in Jerusalem
Pauls second Missionary Journey (Acts 15:36 to 18:23) late 49
50 Passover riot in Jerusalem. 20-30,000 killed.
50 OT translated to Aramaic (Peshitta)
II Thess 50 If authentic, may have originally been addressed to Philippi
Galatians late 49, early 50.
Herod Agrippa II given ethnarchy of Chalcis (Lebanon) by Claudius 50
50 Early gnosticism, Simon Magus, Nicolaus of Antioch, Menander, Basilides, Saturninus.
Pauls 3rd missionary journey (Ephesus) 52-56
52-60 Antonius Felix becomes Procurator of Judea.
Herod Agrippa II given Galilee, Iturea, Gaulanitis and Trachonitis 53
Apollos arrives in Ephesus from Alexandria 53
Claudius is poisoned, Nero becomes Emperor
I & II Corinthians compiled from 4 letters written in 54 from Ephesus to Corinth
Andrew to Macedonia 55-57
55 The "Egyptian" and 30,000 unarmed Jews massacred during re-enactment of Exodus.
Hebrews 55-56 by Apollos in Corinth
Romans..from Corinth Dec 56-Feb 57
Andrew to Greece 57-64
Pauls arrest 57 (acts 21:26-33)
Pauls appearance to Felix and Drusilla 57 (Acts 24:24-26)
Pauls imprisonment in Caesarea 57 (Acts 24:27)
Porcius Festus becomes Procurator of Judea
Pauls trial before Festus (Acts 25:7-12) 58
Yosef bar Naba dies on Cyprus in 58.
58 Felix crushes revolt in Caesarea
Pauls trial before Agrippa (acts 26) 59
Voyage to Rome 59-60
Lazarus to Cyprus 60
Porcius Festus becomes Procurator of Judea 60
Nathanael bar Tolmai (Bartholomew) to Armenia 60
Pauls imprisonment in Rome (Acts 28:30) 60-62
Q material. A sayings gospel from a Greek source for Greek speaking "pre-Christian" Jews. O.T. references are from Septuagint. The Greek source may have been a translation of the Sayings compiled by the Jerusalem assembly from both Mattai's "Oracles" and other sayings that family, disciples, and eyewitnesses remembered.
Yehudah "Toma" killed by a lance in suburb of Madras, India 21 Dec 60.
Simon Qannai Crucified by Catus Decianus at Caistor, Lincolnshire May 10, 61
Paul to Spain early 62 (Rom 15:24-28)
Festus dies 62, Albinus becomes Procurator
James the Righteous executed 62 by Ananus in absence of procurator
Albinus deposes Ananus for killing James the Righteous and inflaming populace. 62
62 Jesus, son of Ananus become High Priest
Paul to Macedonia mid 62
Peter in Rome 62
Paul in Crete 62
Paul to Rome 64
Matathiah (Mathias) stoned to death in Phaleaon) 64
64-66 Gessius Florus becomes Procurator
Fire of Rome July 18, 64
Paul & Peter killed 64 (after fire)
After death of Kepha in Rome, Mark goes to Alexandria. (64).
64 Greek translation of Aramaic written and oral "sayings" becomes "Q"
Andrew returns to Jerusalem
Andrew to Achaia 65
Protoluke 65 (4Q286, 4Q246??) uses MarkI, "sayings" and Q
Mark II "secret Mark" 65 7Q5
I & II Timothy, Titus 66-67 May be by Polycarp.
Jewish War 66
Thaddeus killed with arrow in Ardaze 66
Nero forced to commit suicide, Galba emperor 68
Galba assassinated, Otho emperor 69
Vitellius Emperor 69
Vespasian 69 Vespasian was an able Emperor who inherited an Empire in disarray. The Jewish war which had continued during the period of instability had to be ended quickly and effectively.
bar Tolmai skinned alive and beheaded in Albanopolis (Derbend) by King Astyages 68
Mark martyred in 68
November 31, 69 Andrew Crucified in Achaia
Acts I 70
Destruction of Temple 70 (Sept 2)
Vespasian dies, Titus Emperor 79
Gospel of Thomas I. Compiled from "Sayings source"
Titus dies, Domitian Emperor
Philip stoned in Heiropolis 83
Acts II 85
Ephesians 85 A revised Colossians used as a cover letter for the collected letters of Paul.
John II 85 ... The excommunication may have been the stimulus in 85 to write and compile, edit. This editor incorporates the Signs Gospel verbatim without rewriting or paraphrase, leaving rough connections between the text of Signs and the text of JohnI.
Egerton Gospel. Written independently of Canonicals using same earlier "sayings" source closer to Q than Gospel of Thomas. Egerton lacks the editorial language of Synoptics reflecting earlier traditions. I believe it was used by Jews of Palestine and Syria who were experiencing the strong opposition to "Jesus Jews" by the excommunication.
Lazarus dies on Cyprus 90 CE
Matthai (Matthew) dies in Alexandria 90
1 Clement 92 ??
I Peter 95 probably by sylvanus to soften Revelation (time of Domitian)
1 Clement 96
Domitian dies, Nerva Emperor 96
The Apostle Johns death 14 Nissan, 3860 April 11, 100 CE Pesach eve. Last disciple.
1 Epistle John c. 110 by editor of Gospel of John
II Peter c. 140 Uses I Peter and Jude.